Re: when did modern man begin?




"prd" <X_header@xxxxxxxxxxx> wrote in message
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In sci.anthropology.paleo message
news:ht5Kg.11099$dl.4449@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx by "puttster"
<op@xxxxxx> . . . :

When did modern man begin? I have been researching and there
seems of be opinions mostly either 150,000 or 50,000 years ago.
The former based on the fossil record and the latter on the
cultural record, and maybe the genetic one, too.

Modern Man began in SSA, probably in the central region or congo
basin. The population minimum was about 6900 individuals between
190 and 240 kya. The population began to expand after 170 kya and
archaeology suggests a spread to the limits of east africa before
120 kya.

Evidence for genetics is SSA origin, about >50% greater in time
that the exodus to eurasia
Oldest asia sites are Liujiang 116 kya (68-144kya)
Skhul oldest about 110 kya

Oldest cultural sites are in africa, more stuff is coming
I here, so lets say 100 kya, oldest cultural sites are in
austronesia and SW europe, this is probably just a result of
factors affecting cultural presentation.

The 50,000 yo exodus proposed by klien and others is a just so
scenario that has lost most of its credibility. It is bouyed by the
Y chromosomal studies that reflect only 1/3 of the effective
populations and have a rather large bias in how its spread. Other
studies like mtDNA and x-linked studies indicate a much earlier
exodus from africa, and is more consistent with the earliest
evidence of humans outside of africa.
Paabo proposed an exit time from africa of about 53 kya based on
DNA, his own coworkers concluded that humans reached the andaman
islands about 65 kya, and a parsimonious explanation of LM3 suggest
is was buried about 55 kya, meaning the oldest australian humans
are older than his putative exit time. Much has changed, the
calibration of chimp/human has been moved backward a couple million
years, human nucleotide substituions has slowed down relative to
other monkeys and apes. All taken together makes the later date for
spread rather unlikely.
My expertise is on HLA, which preserve much information in the
population. It appears that humans spread early into arabia and
iran, and then spread elsewhere later. Based on this I would
suggest that dates in australia may be preceded by occupation in
the Iran/arbai region by 20 or 30 ky. The greening of the desert
regions of arabia and climate suggest that around 128,000 years ago
begins a period of high likelihood when humans might have migrated
into these regions. this is consistent with Skhul and Qafhez and
with Liujiang (late and middle dates) and with tool culture
evidence in indonesia, and LM3.
If these exit times are correct and initial expansion within
africa of between 150 and 170 kya is likely. The Y chromosomal
expansion about 50 to 60 kya probably represents an sweep of the
population by a culturally advanced african people who migrated
later and was primarily focused on male success.



What was the change that differentiated him from the others
enough to start the new species (or subspecies?) Homo sapiens
sapiens?

What changed to create a new species. AFAICT the inability to breed
with other species. What changed in behavior, possibly final
refinements of language and grammar, some modest improvements in
symbolic reasoning. Other than that not much that we have evidence
for.

The evidence also suggests that humans will bleep with anything and in some
cases some DNA from preported other Homo species is showing up even though
one would have thought that genes from more archaic types might have been
strongly selected against. Clearly not all the asian erectus died out
without issue.



What is the (scientific) name(s) of his immediate predecessor?

Homo erectus rhodesiensis

Africa seems to be the most popular place, but the how, what and
the when are not very well connected. Is there a story out
there that sets it out?

Genetics, morphology, culture.


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