Re: The Hamza and Alif Confusion in Arabic

Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim wrote:

> In Writing is becomes even more complex. When Hamza is added to Hamza
> or to ´Alif it is written as Madda, a sign put on ´Alif. Is there a
> difference in writing and speaking between:
> Hamza + Hamza = Madda and
> Hamza + ´Alif = Madda ?

alif madda is properly 'a: and nothing else, but there is an older
traditon (dying out) of putting madda over the alif in the combination
-a:'V (V any vowel) when final, to remind the reader no to shorten the

there is a phonological rule that if there are two hamza's in a shut
syllable, i.e. 'V' then the last hamza is dropped and the vowel
lengthened thus: *'a' > 'a: (in whichcase alif madda would be used)
and *'i' > 'i: and *'u' > 'u: