Albanian Inherited Lexicon (6)

*ed- 'to eat'. Oldest form *H1ed-. 1. Alb. <ha> 'I eat' from
*H1ed-óm, due to VDV = V. For H1 > h see also: H1op-o > hap
'open', prapë 'again', prapa 'back', H1u:p-o > Alb. <hyp>
'go up, climb', H1og'mo > H1omg'o-lo > hulli (see above
*ag'-) etc. 2. Participle <ngrânë/ngrënë>, probably from double
prefixed form *H1en- + kër- + -ent. 3. Suffixed form *H1ed-un-iH1 >
huni/uri 'hunger' (cf. Gr. edune: 'pain'): Lat. edere: OHG
ezzen: Sl. jesti. (Pokorny ed- 287.)

*eg'- 'I'. Variant form *eg'(h)om. Szemerényi thinks that
*eg'- is just a prefix in compound *eg'(h)-om. 1. Alb. <û> 'I',
also <unë>, like <y-në> 'our', <to-në/ta-në> 'id.', <jonë>
etc., from *nos - nominal form of the personal pronoun of the first
person plural: Skt. aham, Old Persian adam, Sl. jaz. (Pokorny eg'-

*eg'hi- 'hedgehog'. 1. Alb. <esh> 'hedgehog', probably from
suffixed lengthened o-grade *o:g'hy-s: Lith. e?gys: OCS je?&.
(Pokorny eg'hi- 292.)

*eg- 'lack'. 1a. Alb. <tek> 'caprice, lack', also <tekë>
'id.', probably from prefixed form *t-eg; b. Adj. <tek-a-njoz/e>
'capricious': Lat. ege:re, Old Norse ekla.. (Pokorny eg- 290.)

*eg'hs- 'of, out, from'. 1a. Alb. <jashtë> 'out, beyond',
probably from suffixed form *eg'hs-to; b. <përjashtë> 'outside'
from prefixed form për-jashtë; c. përjashtoj 'to expell,
excomunicate', <përjashtim> 'expell, excomunication' are new
words. 2a. Basic form *eg'hs- > Alb. ith 'back, backward' now
obsolete, but present in compound <b-ithë> 'ass'; b. bythç
'coward'; c. <zbyth> 'push back' a denominative fo <bithë>. 3.
Other derivative with prefix v- is attested in <vithe> 'bottom,
hunkers' as pluralia tantum. Variant form *ek's. 4a. Alb. ish
'eks'; b. ish- 'former': Gr. eks: Lat. ex, Sl. OCS iz. (Pokorny
*eg'hs- 292.)

*egni- Also *ogni- 'fire'. Szemerényi reconstructs also zero-grade
form *n.gni-. 1. Alb. <enj> from *ogni > anji > enj due to i-Umlaut in
<e enjte> 'day of Enj, Thursday', susbstantivized adjective from
<ditë e enjte>: Lat. ignis 'fire', Skt. agnih 'id.', Sl. oganj
'id.'. There are all chances <Enj> in Proto-Albanian to be the god
of fire. (Pokorny egnis- 293.)

*egWh- 'to drink'. Lengthened grade *e:gWh-. 1. Alb. <deh> 'to
inebriate', <dehem> 'to become drunk', probably from prefixed
form *H2ed-*e:gWh- (*gWh > Alb. /h/, cf. *loigWh- > Alb. <i leh-të>,
*snoigWh-eH2 > Alb. <nehë> later reshaped under the homorganic sound
/d/ in <deja> 'place where the snow is melted' and probably <gjuha>
from *dlungh-wa:, where cluster -ghw- was treated as -gWh-). 2.
<esull> 'to become sober', probably from *n. - (not) + egWh-e
(stative)-lo: Lat. ebrius: Hittite ekuzi: ne-phein. (Watkins egWh- 22.)

*ei- 'to go'. Oldest form *h1ei-. 1. Alb. <ik> 'go away',
probably from imperative mood *ei-k. (cf. Lith. ei-k 'go'.). It is
also dialectal form <hik>. 2. <eci> 'go' is probably from *ait-eso.
Exists also dialectal form <hec>. 3. Prefixed and suffixed extended
zero-grade form *H1en-i-t-yo > nis 'to begin' (*tyo > Alb. /s/). 4.
Probably here belongs also <sos> 'to end' from extended form
*ya:-t-yo: Lat. ire: Gr. ienai: Skt eti. (Pokorny 1. ei- 293.)

*eibh- 'to copulate'. Variant form *yebh-. 1. Alb. <zgjebë>
'scabies', probably from iiebh-eH2 > ijebaH2 > zgjebë (*i > z, *e
> ie > je>, cf. *yes- > Alb. ziej 'to boil'). Illyrian PN Oibalos: Gr. oipho, Sl. jeb-ati. (Pokorny *iebh- 298.)

*eis- 'strong movement, passion'. 1. Alb. <i:ri> in <e kam iri>
'I hate too much', probably from suffixed zero-grade form *is(e)r-u
with compensatory lengthening of dropped /s/ through long /i:/. 2a. <i
shti:rë> 'crazy, ragged', probably from double prefixed form of
*sh- + t- *is-ro, used especially in NP <qen i shtirë> 'crazy
dog'; b. Other prefixal derivative <i vështirë> 'hard,
difficult'. 3. <smirë> 'spiteful jealousy', probably also from
double prefixed s-m-i:rë < *is-raH2: Lat. i:ra, Gr. oistros: Av
ae?ma. (Pokorny 1.eis- 299.)

*elH- 'red, brown' (in names of trees and animals). 1. Alb. <ulzë>
'tartarian maple', probably from suffixed zero-grade form
*l.H1-dyaH2. (Pokorny 1.el- 302.)

*el- 'to lie down'. 1. Alb. <ul/ul-em> 'to sit down, ease, light,
count down', probably from zero-grade form *ul-o: Skt. ila-yati: 2.
Prefixed form <për-ul/për-ul-em> 'to demean', <përulje>
'humulity'. (Pokorny 2. el- 302.)

*el- 'to rot'. 1. Alb. <ul> 'to wet, dampen' probably from
zero-grade *ul-o. 2. Prefixed form <q-ull> 'mush' as noun and
<q-ull> 'to wet thorough'. (Pokorny 3. el- 305.)

*el- 'to bend, bow; elbow'. 1. Alb. Gheg <llânë> 'arm, forearm;
ulna', Tosk <llërë> 'id.', probably from suffixed o-grade
*ol-eneH2 (l > ll/V_V) with regular aphaeresis of unstressed initial
syllable (for same formation see also <dana/darë> 'pinchers' from
*dok'-ena, <gjilpânë/gjilpërë> 'needle',
<gërshânë/gërshërë> 'scissors' etc.). 2. As second element
of compounds -yl in <bëryl> 'elbow', <kër-yle> 'stick'. 3.
<krela> 'hair curl', <krela-krela> 'curly', probably from
lengthened o-grade *kër-o:la. 4. <krelânë> 'curly dish',
probably suffixed form in -ena. (Pokorny 6. el- 307.)

*H1en- 'in'. 1a. Alb <në> 'in' probably from extended form
*en-do > ndë > nnë > në; b. as prefix is usually used in reduced
form n-, but in some cases with homorganic sound also <ndë->. 2.
Suffixed form *en-tero > Alb. <i ndjerë> 'inner'. 3. Probably
variant zero-grade form *H1n.-yo > hynj 'to enter' (Hamp thinks
that it was deriver from *Hew- 'of, from, away, down'). 4. Suffixed
form *en-ter > ndër 'among, in'. 5. Prefixed form *per- + en-do >
mrenë<mper-endë < mbrendë /brendë 'within, inside'. 6.
<brëndës> 'intestines; goat -and sheep-cheese prepared in
sheep's stomach' (Rom. brinza). (Pokorny 1. en- 311.)

*-en- suffix with many variants, forming plural in Albanian nouns and
causing the Umlaut: sing. shtrat 'bed', pl. shtreten/shtretër
'beds', shat 'hoe, spud', pl. <sheten/shetër> 'hoes,
spuds' etc. (Watkins -en- 23.)

*engW- 'internal organ'. 1. Alb. <angërr> 'membrane surrounding
a body organ'; <angrra> 'entrails, guts' as pluralia tantum,
probably from o-grade form *ongW-raH2: Lat. inguen: Gr. ade:n (Pokorny
engW- 319.)

*epi, also *opi 'near, at, against'. 1. Alb. pë- as prefix in
pë-shurr (see shurr), pë-ves (see pyes), maybe also pë-shtyj (see
shtyj). 2. Reduced suffixed form *ops-u > Alb. <epsh> 'lust,
libido' as singularized plural from PAlb *apsi. 3a. Suffixed reduced
form *op-er > PAlb. aper > epër 'above'; b. Abstract noun
<epër-si> 'superiority'; adj. <i epërmë> 'paramount'.
(Pokorny epi 323.)

*enek'- 'to reach, obtain'. Variant form *nek'-, *enk'-. 1a.
Alb. <kë-naq> 'to satisfy, content'; b. Abstract noun <kë-naq-si>
'pleasure', probably from *ko(m)- + nok'-ti (cf. Lat. directare >
n-dreq, kt>q). Jokl compares it with Lith. parano-kti. (Pokorny enek'
- 316.)

*ent- 'weave'. 1. Alb. <en> 'to weave', probably from umlauted
form of *ont-o > Palb. and > enn > en, later with homorganic sound
<end>. 2. <in/ind> 'tissue', probably from *ent-u, due to eCC >
iCC: Gr. attomai 'id.': Av. atka 'garment'. (Pokorny ent- 322.)

*er- 'eagle'. 1a. Alb. <orë> 'helpful magical sprite that takes
form as a woman, girl or snake; nymph, fairy; luck', probably from
lengthened suffixed form *e:r-eH2; b. as a second element of compounds:
<orë-bardhë> 'lucky one', <orë-zi> 'unfortunate',
<orë-çuet> 'blessed by fate', <orë-fjetur> 'hapless,
unlucky', <orë-prerë> 'unhappy', but also in different NP <trim
me orë> 'strong warrior', <njeri me orë> 'charismatic man'
etc. Seems that we have to deal with the cult of eagle in Albanian
spiritual life. For connection between "luck" and "birds"
compare *kob- 'to succeed', but Alb. <sh-kabë> 'eagle',
Serbo-Croatian <kobac> 'Accipiter nisus' etc. (Pokorny 1. er- 325.)

*er- 'to move, set in motion'. Oldest form *H1er-. 1. <err-et>
'to dusk, darkle', probably from *er-no (*rn > Alb. /rr/). 2a.
Prefixed form <t-err> 'dark'; b. <err e terr> 'all the time, from
dawn till dusk'. 3. Suffixed o-grade form *H1or-m-ia > Alb. <harmí>
'tooth decay; tuberculosis of the bone in animals; terrible fear,
panic'. (Pokorny 3. er- 326.)

*er- 'earth'. Oldest form *H1er-. 1. Alb. <vorr/varr> 'grave,
tomb' probably from suffixed lengthened basic root *e:r-wo (*rw >
Alb. /rr/): ON: jervi: Kymr. erw, Corn. Erw. In xpressions <fus/kall
në vorr/varr> this word is synonymic with <dhé> 'earth'. (Pokorny
4. er- 332.)

*e:rebh- 'dark color'. Oldest form *eH1rebh-. 1. Alb. <bershe>
'yew' from *ebur-isio with collective suffix: Celt. Eburos, Lig. PN
Eburelianus saltus: Skt. ibar 'id.' (Pokorny e:reb(h)- 334.)

*H1red- 'to flow, dampness'. 1a. Alb. <rrjedh> 'to flow', aor.
<rrodha>; b. Deverbative noun <rrjedhë> 'flow' probably drom
prefixed form *H2ew- + *red-o (wr > Alb. /rr/, *e > ie > je and *d >
/dh/). 2. O-grade form is attested in many place and river names:
Rad-ika (river in Macedonia), Rad-usha 'village in Macedonia',
Rad-on-ik 'lake' (near city of Gjakova), Rad-avc 'village'
(near city of Peja), Rad-ish-eva (village in Drenica), Rad-onja
'village in Albania', as well as Rad-enska and Rad-enci in Slovenia
(cf. Celt.-Ligur. River name Rodanos; Rednitz from *Radontia). (Pokorny
ered- 334.)

*erek- 'louse, tick'. Variant form *ergh-. 1. Alb. <ergjizë>,
probably from suffixed o-grade *orgh-idyeH2: Lat. ricinus, Arm.
o(r)jil. (Pokorny 1. erek- 335.)

*er(e)k- 'to tear, cut, split'. Variant form *rek-. 1a. Alb.
<rreckë> 'rag, tatter', probably from prefixed and lengthended
o-grade form *H2ew- + ro:k-tyeH2 > PAlb. wreksë > rreksë > rreskë;
b. Adj. <i/e rreckosur> 'ragged', shabby'. Exists also variant
form <lecka>: Lith. j-e'rka, pra-j-e'rka 'gash'. (Pokorny 2.
erek- 335.)

*ers-. 'to flow'. Varinat form *reH1s- 1. Alb. <resh> 'to
fall', <reshje> 'fall, rainfall', probably from lengthened
o-grade form *reH3s: Lat. ro:s 'dew', -ris, Sl. rosa 'id.'.
(Pokorny 2. ere-s- 336.)

*ereu- 'to seek, ask'. 1a. Alb. prefixed form *H2ew- + H1reu-n-yo >
vërenj 'set eyes on, remark, notice, observe', aor. vërejta; b.
vërejt-je 'comment, remark'; c. vërejtës 'observer' 2. Other
derivatives is also Alb. <veneroj> 'to notice, observe', probably
from double prefixed lengthened e-grade *H2ew- + H1en- + Hre:u-n-yo:
Gr. ereo 'to ask, seek': ON raun 'to prove, to try'. (Pokorny
ereu- 337.)

*erH1- 'to be still'. Variant form *reH1-. 1. Alb. <resht> 'to
stop, cease', <pa-resht-ur> 'non-stop' probably from o-grade form
*reH3-+ -stH2: OHG rasta 'calm, rest': Av. arime 'still,
calm'.(Pokorny 2. erH- 338.)

*erHdh- 'high; to grow'. Oldest form possibly *H1(e)rH3dh-. 1. Alb.
<m'u rritë> 'to grow up', probably from prefixed zero-grade form
*H2ew- + H1r.H3dh-. 2. <i ardhang-të> 'robust and vigorous',
probably from o-grade suffixed form *orHdh-on-ko: Lat. ardus: Gr.
orthos, Sl. orsto. 3. Possibly variant form <rris> from suffixed and
prefixed zero-grade form *H2ew- + H1r.H3dh-t-yo; rrisk 'fate,
destiny, luck', probably literally 'high, growth that one can
reach' (Pokorny er(H)d- 339.)

*erkW- 'to shine; praise'. 1a. <pjerr> 'to bend, incline',
probably from prefixed form *epi- erkW- > PAlb. pëierw, synonymic with
<prirem> 'id.', probably from zero-grade form *epi- + *r.kW-no >
Alb. <m'u pë-ri-më>; b. primje/prirje 'gift, fondness,
inclination': të primtë përpara lterit 'to pray before the
altar' leads us to primary meaning 'to pray', attested in Hitt.
ar-ku-wa-nu-un 'I pray' (Pokorny erkw- 340.)

*es- 'to be'. 1. Athematic first person singular form *es-mi > Alb.
<jam> 'am', aor. <qeshë> from much older attested form <kleshë>,
that yields Gheg <keshë>, Tosk <qeshë>, participle of verb
*k'leu-nti 'to be honored, heard, with name'. 2. Prefixed
athematic third person singular *H1en- + es-ti > ânshtë > është. 3.
Third person plural <janë> 'are', probably from <sonti> (Skt.
hanti: Lat. sunt: Goth. sind: Sl. su etc.). (Pokorny es- 340.)

*eus- 'to burn'. 1. Alb. <ushël> 'burned and therefore swelled
place of body', probably from suffixed zero-grade form *us-el.
(Pokorny, eus- 347.)