From: Dr. Jai Maharaj (
Date: 02/14/05

Date: Mon, 14 Feb 2005 04:42:11 GMT


Forwarded message from Fidyl <>

[ From: Fidyl <>
[ Date: Sun, 13 Feb 2005


By Alan Tillotson, Ph.D., AHG

[Not completely Vegan - Fidyl]

Recent TV ads from major cholesterol-lowering drugs like Lipitor
flash language stating that the medicines do not prevent heart
attacks or heart disease.

In comparison, the below scientific reports deal with the much more
important purpose of lowering cholesterol - to prevent vessel
clogging, how garlic effects can be made stronger with fish oils, and
finally estimates on the core issue of garlic's effectiveness in
preventing real heart attacks.

The anti-atherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.

Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, Schmitt R, Radtke H, Siegel G,
Kiesewetter H. Atherosclerosis 1999 May;144(1):237-49

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the
"plaque volumes" in both "carotid" and "femoral" arteries of 152
probationers were determined by B-mode ultrasound.

Continuous intake of high-dose garlic powder dragees "reduced"
significantly the increase in arteriosclerotic plaque volume by 5-18%
or even effected a slight regression within the observational period
of 48 months.

Also the age-dependent representation of the plaque volume shows an
increase between 50 and 80 years that is diminished under garlic
treatment by 6-13% related to 4 years.

It seems even more important that with garlic application the plaque
volume in the whole collective remained practically constant within
the age-span of 50-80 years.
These results substantiated that not only a preventive but possibly
also a "curative" role in arteriosclerosis therapy (plaque
regression) may be ascribed to garlic remedies.

Publication Types:

 * Clinical Trial
 * Randomized Controlled Trial

J Natl Med Assoc 1997 Oct;89(10):673-8

Modulation of "lipid profile" by fish oil and garlic combination.

Morcos NC. Division of Cardiology, University of California, Irvine
92717, USA.

Fish consumption has been shown to influence epidemiology of
heart disease, and garlic has been shown to influence triglyceride

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fish oil and
garlic combinations as a dietary supplement on the lipid

Forty consecutive subjects with lipid profile "abnormalities" were
enrolled in a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.
Each subject received placebo for 1 month and fish oil (1800 mg of
eicosapentanoic acid [EPA] + 1200 mg of docosahexanoic acid) with
garlic powder (1200 mg) capsules daily for 1 month.

Lipid fractionation was performed prior to study initiation, after
the placebo period, and after the intervention period.

Subjects all had cholesterol levels > 200. Subjects were instructed
to maintain their usual diets.

Supplementation for 1 month resulted in an 11% decrease in
"cholesterol", a 34% decrease in "triglyceride", and a 10% decrease
in "low-density lipoprotein" (LDL) levels, as well as a 19% decrease
in cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) risk.

Although not significant, there was a trend toward "increase" in HDL.

There was no significant placebo effect. These results suggest that
in addition to the known "anticoagulant" and "antioxidant" properties
of both fish oil and garlic, the combination causes favorable shifts
in the lipid subfractions within 1 month.

Triglycerides are affected to the largest extent.

The cholesterol lowering and improvement in lipid/HDL
risk ratios suggests that these combinations may have
"antiatherosclerotic properties" and may protect against the
development of coronary artery disease.

Publication Types:

 * Clinical Trial
 * Randomized Controlled Trial

Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149(8-10):217-24 [Pleiotropic effects of
garlic] [Article in German] Siegel G, Walter A, Engel S, Walper A,
Michel F. Institut fur Physiologie, Universitatsklinikums Benjamin
Franklin, Freien Universitat Berlin, Deutschland.

Garlic as a herbal remedy reduces a multitude of "risk factors" which
play a decisive role in the genesis and progression of

decrease in total and LDL-cholesterol,
increase in HDL-cholesterol, reduction of serum triglyceride and
fibrinogen concentration, lowering of arterial blood pressure and
promotion of organ perfusion, and, finally, enhancement in
fibrinolysis, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and diminution of
plasma viscosity.

In a prospective, 4-year clinical trial with primary endpoint
'arteriosclerotic plaque volume' it was proven not only a 9 to 18%
reduction and 3% regression in plaque volume of the total collective
under the influence of standardized garlic powder
dragees (900 mg/die LI 111), but also of some facets of the
phytopharmacologic pleiotropy of this herb:
decrease in LDL level by 4%, increase in HDL concentration by
8%, and lowering in blood pressure by 7%.

The reduction of arterial blood pressure is due to an additional
opening of K(Ca) ion channels in the membrane of vascular smooth
muscle cells that effects its hyperpolarization.

This membrane hyperpolarization closes about 20% of
the L-type Ca2+ channels, consequence of which is "vasodilatation".

In human coronary arteries, the increase in vascular diameter by 4%
is closely associated with an improvement of "coronary perfusion" by

These pleiotropic effects of garlic result in a reduction of relative
cardiovascular risk for infarction (heart attack) and stroke by more
than 50%.


Alan Keith Tillotson, PhD, AHG
1008 Milltown Rd., Wilm., DE 19808 USA
(302) 994-0565 (302) 995-0653 fax
Email: Al-@a...

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By Decker Weiss: NMD, AACVPR

Today, garlic is one of the most researched plant medicines. By 1996,
more than 1,800 scientific studies had investigated garlic’s
medicinal properties.

Through these studies, garlic has been verified as an important
natural supplement in the treatment of many health problems.

Why is garlic so beneficial?

Garlic chemistry is very complex. It’s rich in many active
components, including 75 different sulfur compounds.

Allicin, the substance that gives garlic its characteristic odor (and
to those who partake of its goodness —garlic breath) is the compound
that’s most prized.

Most garlic producers strive to grow garlic plants with a high
allicin yield.

Without allicin, garlic might not have any benefit at all.

However, as important as allicin is to garlic growers and harvesters
alike, the concentration of allicin in an intact clove of garlic is
astonishingly small.

This is because allicin is protected in the clove by cell walls. It
is only after the cell walls are crushed or cut that garlic cloves
release their allicin.

While allicin itself has beneficial health effects, its greatest
strength is in what it yields.

Once allicin is released, many compounds are formed. These compounds
are responsible for most of garlic’s health benefits. 4 Allicin
itself is highly unstable. In fact, allicin cannot be detected in the
bloodstream or urine at any time after eating

Allicin is also destroyed by stomach acid.

Many commercial garlic products are enteric-coated. The tablets go
through the stomach intact without dissolving.

This delivers the garlic tablet to the small intestine, where the
tablet dissolves and releases its allicin. From the small intestine,
allicin’s many compounds are formed and then enter the bloodstream.
This form of supplementation also avoids the development of
garlic breath.

Is it true that garlic is good for the heart?

Garlic has many beneficial properties that improve the health of the
heart and circulation. These include:

antioxidant activity
anti-clotting agent
inhibition of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)

reducing “bad” cholesterol levels in the blood
raising “good” cholesterol levels in the blood
lowering blood pressure.

Recently, there have been some reports in the news that discount
garlic’s ability to lower cholesterol. Why is there such a difference
in garlic research results?

Prior to 1995, studies consistently concluded garlic lowered
cholesterol levels. However, since 1995, many clinical trials have
concluded garlic has no effect in lowering cholesterol levels in the

Researchers, concerned about these findings decided to determine why
this occurred.

The researchers, under the direction of Dr. Larry D. Lawson, examined
the garlic supplements used in the studies that found no beneficial
effect. One such study published in The Journal of the American
Medical Association in 1998, concluded that garlic had no effect on
serum cholesterol

While allicin cannot be detected in blood or urine, it can be
detected in the breath.

Using the exact products previously studied (same lot
numbers and year of manufacture), Dr. Lawson measured the JAMA
study’s test product, a garlic "oil".

When Dr. Lawson tested study subject’s breath after taking the garlic
oil, minimal allicin was detected.

However, when Dr. Lawson encapsulated the same oil in "gelatin
capsules" and had study subjects swallow the capsules, the same oil
"produced" three times as much allicin.

A recent meta-analysis (a large review study of several other studies
with statistical analysis) of clinical trials concluded the use of
garlic to lower cholesterol was, at best, of questionable value.

Most of the studies published after 1995 that concluded garlic had no
effect on serum cholesterol used "non-enteric-coated" tablets.

Dr. Lawson studied the tablets used in these trials and determined
the tablets dissolved in the stomach.

The allicin was released too early, was "destroyed" by stomach acid,
and never reached the bloodstream.

Dr. Lawson concluded the trials used poor-quality products. He
further concluded that when enteric coated tablets are manufactured
using garlic containing high allicin potential, serum cholesterol
lowering effect should be noted.

He urged new clinical trials with such supplements.

There has also been some controversy comparing the effectiveness of
supplements made with fresh garlic and those made from aged garlic

Is there any way to determine which type of garlic supplement
is the most effective?

Some manufacturers of garlic supplements believe allicin is not the
effective compound in garlic.

These companies manufacture aged-garlic extract (AGE) products. They
have initiated, funded, and conducted many
studies regarding the safety of garlic juice, garlic powder, and
enteric-coated garlic tablets.

The studies have compared these products to their AGE products.
The studies frequently conclude fresh garlic and enteric-coated
garlic are harmful to stomach lining and can cause

However, recently at the American Herbal Products Association’s
International Garlic Symposium, several noted garlic researchers and
experts disagreed with these findings.

During a roundtable discussion, the consensus determined there have
been no successful independent replications of the AGE studies.

Furthermore, the roundtable concluded that several ethnic groups
consume large amounts of "raw garlic" every day without any
associated ill effects. There has never been a clinically noted
association of garlic consumption and ulcer formation.

And, finally, the scientists questioned the validity of the study
results due to "sponsor-associated" bias.

What evidence is there for the anticancer benefits of garlic?

Much research has examined garlic’s role in the inhibition and
prevention of various types of cancer. Some of these studies have
evolved from the observations that certain ethnic groups who eat a
lot of garlic in their diet have a low incidence of certain types of

In a recent meta-analysis, the authors concluded garlic was
especially effective in preventing stomach and colon cancers

Are there any other scientifically documented health benefits to

Garlic is a powerful detoxifying agent that can protect against
various "liver toxins". In an experimental study, garlic protected
against acetaminophen (Tylenol®)-induced liver toxicity.23 This means
that individuals who are taking Tylenol® may find garlic is

Garlic can also kill harmful bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

Is there a recommended daily dosage for allicin?

Based on a great deal of clinical research, a medically validated
commercial garlic product should provide a daily dose of a total
allicin potential of 4,000 micrograms (mcg).

This dosage equates to roughly one to four cloves of fresh garlic. Be
sure to read labels; demand products that deliver a guaranteed yield
of allicin and are enteric-coated to prevent premature release in the


Garlic is indeed a unique plant. It has a long and colorful history
as both food and medicine, and is highly valued as both.

Scientific study

has provided understanding of the many benefits of garlic as a
supplement. And, most importantly, many loyal enthusiasts worldwide
attest to healthier hearts and improved lives simply from using
garlic supplements.


1. Riddle JM. Garlic’s history as a medicine. Presentation at the
American Herbal Products Association International Garlic Symposium.
July 31, 2001.

2. Garlic. In: Blumenthal M, ed. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission
E Monographs. Austin, Tex: American Botanical Council; 2000:139-148.

3. Ellmore GS, Milano E, Feldberg RS. Navigating the clove: mapping
bioactive compounds in garlic (Allium sativum). Presentation at the
American Herbal Products Association International Garlic Symposium.
July 31, 2001.

4. Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Garlic. In: Tyler’s Herbs of Choice. New
York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press; 1999:132-137

5. Lawson LD, Wang ZJ, Papadimitrou D. Allicin release under
simulated gastrointestinal condition for garlic powder tablets
employed in clinical trials on serum cholesterol. Planta Med.

6. Ho SE, Ide N, Lau BH. S-allyl cysteine reduces oxidant load in
cells involved in the atherogenic process. Phytomedicine.

7. Ali M, Thomson M. Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be
beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent
Fatty Acids. 1995;53:211-212.

8. Gadkari JV, Joshi VD. Effect of ingestion of raw garlic on serum
cholesterol level, clotting time and fibrinolytic activity in normal
subjects. J Postgrad Med. 1991;37:128-131.

9. Orekhov AN, Grunwald J. Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis.
Nutrition. 1997;13:656-663.

10. Silagy C, Neil garlic as a lipid lowering agent—a meta-analysis.
J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1994;28:39-45.

11. Morcos NC. Modulation of lipid profile by fish oil and garlic
combination. J Natl Med Assoc. 1997;89:673-678.

12. Al-Qattan KK, Khan I, Alnaqeeg MA, Ali M. Thromboxane-B2,
prostaglandin-E2 and hypertension in the rat 2-kidney 1-clip model: a
possible mechanism of the garlic induced hypotension. Prostaglandins
Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2001;64:5-10.

13. Qidwai W, Qureshi R, Hasan SN, Azam SL. Effect of dietary garlic
(Allium Sativum) on the blood pressure in humans-a pilot study. J Pak
Med Assoc. 2000;50:204-207.

14. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil
preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism: a
randomized controlled trial. JAM 1998;279:1900-1902.

15. Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating
hypercholesteremia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:420-429.

16. Sumiyoshi H. New pharmacological activities of garlic and its
constituents. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1997;1:93-97.

17. Kasuga S, Uda N, Kyo E, Ushijima M, Morihara N, Itakura Y.
Pharmacologic activities of aged garlic extract in comparison with
other garlic preparations. J Nutr. 2001;131:1080-1084.

18. Amagase H, Block E, Bordia A, Lawson LD. The controversial issues
surrounding allicin versus non-allicin containing products.
Presentation at the American Herbal Products Association
International Garlic Symposium. Aug. 1, 2001.

19. Reuter HD, Koch HP, Lawson LD. Anticancer effects. In: Koch HP,
Lawson LD. Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium
sativum and Related Species. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins;

20. Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: a critical review of
the epidemiologic literature. J Nutr. 2001; 131:1032S-1041S.

21. Knowles LM, Milner J Possible mechanism by which allyl sulfides
suppress neoplastic cell proliferation. J Nutr. 2001;131:1061S-1066S.

22. Lamm DL, Riggs DR. Enhanced immunocompetence by garlic: role in
bladder cancer and other malignancies. J Nutr. 2001;131:1067S-1070S.

23. Hu JJ, Yoo JS, Lin M, Wang EJ, Yang CS. Protective effects of
diallyl sulfide on acetaminophen-induced toxicities. Food Chem
Toxicol. 1996;34:963-969.

24. Guo NL, Lu DP, Woods GL, et al. Demonstration of the anti-viral
activity of garlic extract against human cytomegalovirus in vitro.
Chin Med J (Engl). 1993;106:93-96.

25. O’Gara EA, Hill DJ, Maslin DJ. Activities of garlic oil, garlic
powder, and their diallyl constituents against Helicobacter pylori.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:2269-2273.

26. Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A, et al. Efficacy of ajone in the
treatment of tinea pedis: a double blind and comparative study with
terbinafine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:829-832

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 Garlic: For Maximum Benefit, Choose the Right Product!
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Garlic has been used throughout history virtually all over the world
as a medicine. Its usage predates written history. Sanskrit records
document the use of garlic remedies approximately 5,000 years ago,
while the Chinese have been using it for at least 3,000 years.

The Codex

Ebers, an Egyptian medical papyrus dating to about 1,550 B.C.,
mentions garlic as an effective remedy for a variety of ailments,
including high blood pressure, headache, bites, worms, and tumors.

Aristotle and Pliny cited numerous therapeutic uses for garlic.
Stories, verse and folklore (such as its alleged ability to ward off
vampires) also give historical documentation to garlic's healing
power. Sir John Harrington in The Englishman's Doctor, written in
1609, summarized garlic's virtues and faults:

Garlic then have power to save from death

Bear with it though it maketh unsavory breath, And scorn not garlic
like some that think It only maketh men wink and drink and stink.
Another favorite saying about garlic is "Eat garlic and gain your
health, but lose your friends." Fortunately, there are now commercial
preparations that provide all of the health benefits of garlic
without the social consequences.

What are the scientifically confirmed effects of garlic?

Garlic has a wide range of well-documented effects including helping
to fight infection and boost "immune function"; preventing cancer
prevention; and the cardiovascular benefits of lowering cholesterol
and blood pressure.

All of these beneficial effects of garlic are attributed to
its "sulfur-containing" compounds:

allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and others.

Allicin is mainly responsible for the pungent odor of garlic. It is
formed by the action of the enzyme alliinase on
the compound alliin.

The enzyme is activated by heat, oxygen, or water.

This fact accounts for the fact that cooked garlic as well as "aged
garlic preparations" and garlic oil products produce neither as
strong an odor as raw garlic nor nearly as powerful medicinal

Do "odor controlled" or "odorless" garlic products contain allicin?
Some do and some do not.

Since allicin is the component in garlic that is responsible for its
easily identifiable odor, some manufacturers have
developed highly sophisticated methods in an effort to provide the
full benefits of garlic - they provide "odorless" garlic products
concentrated for alliin because alliin is relatively "odorless" until
it is converted to allicin in the body.

Products concentrated for alliin
and other sulfur components provide all of the benefits of fresh
garlic if they are manufactured properly, but are more "socially

Because alliin and alliinase are very stable when garlic is properly
processed, there is a method to insure that the allicin is not
produced until the garlic powder mixes with the fluids of the
intestinal tract.

This method is coating the specially prepared garlic in such a manner
so that the tablet does not break down until after it has passed
through the stomach. This method is referred to as "enteric-coating."

If a non-enteric coated garlic preparation is used, the stomach acid
will destroy the majority of the formed allicin. So, these
preparations are not likely to produce as good of results as a high
quality, enteric coated product.

The same can be said for aged garlic and garlic oil
products as these forms of garlic contain absolutely no allicin or
allicin degradation products.

What should I look for in a garlic supplement?

There are a couple of vital considerations when choosing a garlic
product. First of all, it is important to make sure that the product
provides a sufficient level of allicin. Since allicin is not actually
in the product at any significant levels, manufacturers often refer
to the allicin potential or allicin yield.

These terms signify the amount of allicin produced when allinase is
activated in the garlic tablet or

The next issue is not so simple to tell from a label. It involves the
quality and character of the enteric coating of the tablet. In order
for the allicin to be liberated within the intestinal tract, the
tablet must not only be resistant to the stomach's acid, it must
disintegrate rapidly when it reaches the small intestine.

According to research conducted by the renowned garlic expert, Dr.
Larry D. Lawson, when 24 brands of enteric-coated garlic were
analyzed for tablet dissolution using an approved method (USP
dissolution method 724A) only one brand released the amount of
allicin claimed on the label.

The second best brand released only 44% of label claim and 75% of the
brands released less than 10% of label claim. Failure to deliver an
effective dosage of allicin will most assuredly lead to failure to
lower cholesterol or blood pressure.

Why did so many garlic products fail to deliver allicin?
Dr. Lawson discovered that there were basically two major problems.
First of all, many of the garlic products contained little allinase

There was plenty of alliin, but since the activity of allinase was
low the level of allicin formed was also low. Next, Dr. Lawson found
that many of the tablets contained excipients (e.g., binders and
fillers) that actually inhibit allinase activity.

The allinase activity in 63% of the brands was less than 10% of
expected activity. The inability to release an effective dose of
allicin would explain why so many of the studies with garlic
supplements fail to show benefit in lowering cholesterol or blood

For example, studies done with one particular garlic supplement prior
to 1993 were mostly positive. In fact, the results from these
positive studies were the main reason garlic supplements have been
allowed in German and in the U.S. to refer to cholesterol lowering

While the authors of the negative studies on garlic have felt that
the underlying reason for the results was a better-designed study, a
more likely explanation is that they are due to a poorer quality

Specifically, research conducted by Dr. Lawson has shown that tablets
manufactured before 1993 were twice as resistant to disintegration in
acid as tablets manufactured after 1993 and that the older tablets
released three times the amount of allicin as the more recently
manufactured tablets.

Examination of the package labels shows several
changes in tablet excipients between the pre- and post 1993 tablets.
Again, these excipients are believed to block allinase activity.

Can garlic really lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels?

Yes, but there are some important caveats as mentioned above. The
studies showing a positive effect of garlic and garlic preparations
are those that deliver a sufficient dosage of allicin.

The negative studies
do not. In the positive double-blind studies in patients with initial
cholesterol levels greater than 200 mg/dl, supplementation with
garlic preparations providing a daily dose of at least 10 mg alliin
or a total allicin potential of 4,000 mcg total serum cholesterol
levels dropped by about 10% to 12%, LDL cholesterol decreased by
about 15%, HDL cholesterol levels usually increased by about 10%, and
triglyceride levels dropped by 15%.

Blood pressure readings also dropped with
typical reductions of 11 mm Hg for the systolic and 5.0 in the
diastolic within a one to three month period.

What About Aged Garlic?

Since aged garlic does not contain allicin, it does not produce any
significant benefits on either blood pressure or cholesterol levels.

It may provide some other benefits on the cardiovascular system, but
the significance of these effects has not been fully evaluated.

What brand do you recommend?

Based upon Dr. Lawson's new research as well as the research
conducted by Natural Factors, I am now endorsing Garlic Factors.

I feel that it gives a person the best chance of getting all the
benefits of fresh garlic minus the odor.

How much garlic do I need?

Based on the results of the positive clinical trials, the dosage of a
commercial garlic product should provide a daily dose of at least 10
mg alliin or a total allicin potential of 4,000 mcg. This dosage
equates to roughly one to four cloves of fresh garlic. Each tablet of
Garlic Factors provides 8,250 mcg of allicin - making it the highest
potency garlic product on the market. But, the real advantage of
Garlic Factors is the fact that it is manufactured by Natural Factors
 - the experts in effective natural products. As a result, you are
assured that Garlic Factors has been designed to produce results.

Is garlic safe?

Garlic preparations taken orally, even "odorless" products, can
produce a garlic odor on the breath and through the skin.
Gastrointestinal irritation and nausea are the most frequent side
effects. Beware of the propaganda on the dangers of allicin.

I do not argue that acute and prolonged feeding of large amounts of
raw garlic to rats results in anemia

However, the dosages of fresh garlic used in these studies to produce
these toxic effects were incredibly high, e.g., 500 mg of fresh
garlic per 100 g of body weight.

Does garlic interact with any drugs?

Theoretically, garlic preparations may potentiate the effects of the
blood thinning drug Coumadin® (warfarin) as well as enhance the
antiplatelet effects of drugs like aspirin and Ticlid® (ticlopidine).

If you are taking these drugs, please consult a physician before
taking a garlic product. Garlic may also increase the effectiveness
of drugs that lower blood sugar levels in the treatment of
non-insulin dependent diabetes (type 2 diabetes) such as glyburide
(Diabeta, Micronase).

Consult a physician to discuss proper monitoring of blood sugar
levels before taking a garlic product.


Koch H and Lawson L (eds.): Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic
Application of Allium Sativum L and Related Species, 2nd Edition.
Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1996.

Lawson LD and Wang ZJ. Tablet quality: A major problem in clinical
trials with garlic supplements. Forsch Kmplmentaermed 7:45, 2000.

Lawson LD, Wang ZJ and Papdimitrou D. Allicin release under simulated
gastrointestinal conditions from garlic powder tablets employed in
clinical trials on serum cholesterol. Planta Medica 2001;67:13-18.
Stevinson C, Pittler MH and Erst E. Garlic for treating
hypercholesterolemia: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Intern Med 133:420-9, 2000.

Kleijnen J, et al.: Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors: A
review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on
commercially available preparations. Br J Clin Pharmacol 28:535-44,

Warshafsky S, Kamer RS and Sivak SL: Effect of garlic on total serum
cholesterol. Ann Intern Med 119:599-605, 1993.

Jain AK, et al.: Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A
controlled clinical study. Am J Med 94:632-5, 1993.

Rotzch W, et al.: Postprandial lipaemia under treatment with Allium
sativum. Controlled double-blind study in healthy volunteers with
reduced HDL2- cholesterol levels. Arzneim Forsch 42:1223-7, 1992.

Mader FH: Treatment of hyperlipidemia with garlic-powder tablets.
Arzneim Forsch 40:1111-6, 1990.

Silagy CA and Neil HA: A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on
blood pressure. J Hypertens 12:463-8, 1994.

Reuter HD: Allium sativum and Allium ursinum: Part 2. Pharmacology
and medicinal application. Phytomed 2:73-91, 1995.

Steiner M, et al.: A double-blind crossover study in moderately
hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic
extract and placebo administration on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr
64:866-70, 1996.

Nakagawa S, et al.: Effect of raw and extracted-aged garlic juice on
growth of young rats and their organs after perioral administration.
J Toxicol Sci 5:91-112, 1980.

Joseph PK, Rao KR and Sundaresh CS. Toxic effects of garlic extract
and garlic oil in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 27:977-9, 1989.

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 Four Year Study Shows Garlic Reduces Arterial Plaque
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J.Koscielny, D. Kluessendorf, R. Latza, R. Schmitt, H. Radtke, G.
Siegel and H. Kiesewetter

This article was provided by:

American Botanical Council
P.O. Box 144345
Austin, TX 78714-4345
Phone 512-926-4900
Email ab-@h...


1) Koscielny, J, D. Kluessendorf, R. Latza, R. Schmitt, H. Radtke,

G. Siegel and H. Kiesewetter. The antiatherosclerotic effect of
Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis. 1999; Vol. 1444, pp. 237-249.

2) Lichtwer Pharma U.S., Inc. Consumer Information: Executive
Summary, Kwai Product Background & History, Common Questions and
Answers. May 1999

Numerous clinical studies have found that dietary supplementation
with garlic may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease in a
variety of ways, including lowering total cholesterol and LDL
cholesterol and "inhibiting" its "oxidation", lowering triglycerides,
inhibiting platelet aggregation, lowering blood pressure, lowering
fibrinogen concentration, and enhancing fibrinolytic activity.

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed the
effects of long-term garlic supplementation on plaque formation in
both the carotid (neck) and femoral (leg) arteries of 152 male and
female subjects (61 in the garlic supplement group and 91 in the
placebo group) over a 48-month period.

For inclusion in the study, the subjects had to be diagnosed with
advanced atherosclerotic plaques as measured by ultrasound and have
at least one of the established risk factors for heart disease such
as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or smoking.

Subjects in the garlic group received 900 milligrams a day of garlic
powder (Lichtwer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) and the placebo group
received tablets that were identical in appearance, but contained no
garlic powder (also provided by Lichtwer Pharma).

This study is significant in that it may represent the longest study
on a phytomedicine published to date.

High-resolution sonography was used to measure plaque volumes in the
subjects' arteries.

High-resolution ultrasound provides noninvasive imaging of single
wall structures of major arteries.

The combined intimal-medial thickness (IMT) was used as an indicator
of arterial vessel wall morphology.

It is a strong "predictor" of the "progression rate" of

The ultrasonographic measurement of the regression or progression of
atherosclerotic plaques in the common carotid and the femoral artery
was the primary endpoint of the study.

"Plaques" in the common carotid artery appear to be associated with a
2.1-fold increase in the incidence of "myocardial infarction" (heart

Plaques present in the femoral arteries in subjects suffering from
peripheral arterial occlusive disease are associated with a 2.4 fold
increase in risk for ischemic coronary disease (inadequate blood
supply to the heart muscle).

Plasma viscosity, platelet aggregation, total blood cholesterol,
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein
(HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose determinations were

In addition, a Doppler pressure assessment of the brachial (in the
upper arm), dorsal pedal (in the foot), and posterior tibial artery
(in the foot), blood pressure and heart rates were also obtained, but
are not reported in this summary.

The plaque volumes of the arteries measured in each person were
summed up to a total volume and plotted at the respective time or
In the placebo group, the arteriosclerotic plaque volume increased by
15.6% over four years, whereas in the garlic group, a 2.6% decrease,
or "regression" in "plaque volume", was observed.

At the end of the study, asignificant difference of 18.3% in plaque
volume was found between the placebo group and the garlic group. The
result were most dramatic for the women, where those receiving the
placebo experienced a 53.1% increase in plaque volume compared to a
4.6% plaque regression in those receiving garlic supplements.

However, among the women, the age composition was not equal in the
placebo and treatment groups (due to drop-outs, the placebo group was
predominately younger women and the garlic group predominately older
women). After adjusting for this age
discrepancy, the authors concluded that only 4.6% of the plaque
regression could be rated as a genuine garlic effect.

The authors concluded that their study substantiates that continuous
supplementation of high-dose garlic can reduce the increase in
arteriosclerotic plaque volume by 6-18% or even cause a regression
within four years. Such an effect can be considered clinically

They suggests that garlic is a "remedy" that simultaneously
influences a variety of systems or metabolic processes.

These remedies are characterized as "pleiotropic" substances and may
provide more benefit than conventional medications, which typically
target one effect against the disease being treated.
- Densie Webb, Ph.D.

Enclosure: 1) Reprinted from Atherosclerosis, 144: 237-249, 1999, Bin
#166 with permission from Elsevier Science

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Garlic Reduces "Plaque Mass" in Arteries
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

This new study provides conclusive evidence that garlic prevents and
reduces plaque build up in carotid (heart) arteries and femoral
(thigh) arteries.

When fatty 'plaque', like cholesterol, builds up in the arteries, it
increases the risk of heart attacks.

German researchers studied 280 participants over a 4 year period.
Participants were given either 900mg of garlic per day or a placebo.
Those who took the garlic had 18% less plaque than those who took a

Men who took the placebo had a 5.5% increase in plaque build up and
those who took garlic had only a 1.1% increase.
Women who took the garlic had a 4.6% decrease in plaque build up,
while those who took the placebo had an increase of 53%.

Researchers believe that garlic reduces blood aggregation (blood
stickiness) and thus helps stop the plaque sticking to the artery

This study clearly reveals that continuous taking of high dose
garliccan reduce the plaque volume by 6-18% or a regression within 4

The Authors of this study state that, "These results substantiated
that not only a preventive but possibly also a curative role in
arteriosclerosis therapy (plaque regression) may be ascribed to
garlic remedies".


(Reuters Health)

Reference : Koscielny,J et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of
Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999;144(1):237-49

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Modulation of Lipid Profile by Fish Oil and Garlic Combination
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Medical Abstract Title:

Modulation of Lipid Profile by Fish Oil and Garlic Combination

Morcos NC

J Natl Med Assoc. 1997;89:673-678.


Fish consumption has been shown to influence epidemiology of heart
disease, and garlic has been shown to influence triglyceride levels.

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fish oil and
garlic combinations as a dietary supplement on the lipid

Forty consecutive subjects with lipid profile abnormalities were
enrolled in a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

Each subject received placebo for 1 month and fish oil (1800 mg of
eicosapentanoic acid [EPA) + 1200 mg of docosahexanoic acid) with
garlic powder (1200 mg) capsules daily for 1 month. Lipid
fractionation was performed prior to study initiation, after the
placebo period, and after the intervention period.

Subjects all had cholesterol levels >200.
Subjects were instructed to maintain their usual diets.

Supplementation for 1 month resulted in an 11% "decrease" in
cholesterol, a 34% "decrease" in triglyceride, and a 10% "decrease"
in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, as well as a 19% decrease in
cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) risk. Although not
significant, there was a trend toward increase in HDL.

There was no significant placebo effect.

These results suggest that in addition to the known "anticoagulant"
and antioxidant properties of both fish oil and garlic, the
combination causes favorable shifts in the "lipid subfractions"
wiithin 1 month.

Triglycerides are affected to the largest extent.

The cholesterol lowering and improvement in lipid/HDL risk ratios
suggests that these combinations may have antiatherosclerotic
properties and may protect against the development of coronary artery

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Garlic Derivative, Ajoene, Inhibits Platelet Deposition
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Medical Abstract Title:

A Garlic Derivative, Ajoene, Inhibits Platelet Deposition on Severely
Damaged Vessel Wall in an in Vivo Porcine Experimental Model

Apitz-Castro R, Badimon JJ, Badimon L

Thromb Res. 1994; 75(3):243-249.


Ajoene, (E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, is a potent
antiplatelet compound isolated from alcoholic extracts of garlic.

In vitro, ajoene reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation as well as
the release reaction induced by all known agonists.

We used a well characterized perfusion chamber to study the in vivo
effects of ajoene on platelet deposition onto a highly thrombogenic,
severely damaged arterial wall, obtained by stripping off the intimal
layer and exposing tunica media.

Platelet-vessel wall interaction and the effect of ajoene
was studied under flow conditions of high and low local shear rate
that mimics laminar blood flow in small and medium size arteries
(1690 sec-1 and 212 sec-1).

Our results indicate that administration of ajoene to heparinized
animals, significantly prevents "thrombus formation" at local low
blood shear rate.

Ajoene does not inhibit binding of vWF to GPIb, therefore,
it does not affect platelet adhesion.

In fact, although ajoene impairs fibrinogen and vWF (less efficient)
binding to GPlIb/IIIa, it does not totally inhibit platelet
deposition to the substrates at any of the shear rates used in this

Our present results, under in vivo flow conditions and in the
presence of physiological calcium levels, suggest that ajoene may be
potentially useful for the acute "prevention" of thrombus formation
induced by severe vascular damage, mainly in sites with local low
shear rates.

End of forwarded message from Fidyl <>

Jai Maharaj
Om Shanti

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