Re: Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate

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Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and

F. B. Hu, R. M. van Dam, S. Liu

Although diet and nutrition are widely believed to play an important
part in the development of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes
mellitus, specific dietary factors have not been clearly defined. Much
controversy exists about the relations between the amount and types of
dietary fat and carbohydrate and the risk of diabetes. In this
article, we review in detail the current evidence regarding the
associations between different types of fats and carbohydrates and
insulin resistance and Type II diabetes. Our findings indicate that a
higher intake of polyunsaturated fat and possibly long-chain n-3 fatty
acids could be beneficial, whereas a higher intake of saturated fat
and trans-fat could adversely affect glucose metabolism and insulin
resistance. In dietary practice, exchanging nonhydrogenated
polyunsaturated fat for saturated and trans-fatty acids could
appreciably reduce risk of Type II diabetes. In addition, a low-
glycaemic index diet with a higher amount of fiber and minimally
processed whole grain products reduces glycaemic and insulinaemic
responses and lowers the risk of Type II diabetes. Dietary
recommendations to prevent Type II diabetes should focus more on the
quality of fat and carbohydrate in the diet than quantity alone, in
addition to balancing total energy intake with expenditure to avoid
overweight and obesity. [Diabetologia (2001) 44: 805-817]



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