I call the "anti-neutrino" a neutrino because it has no charge. My
understandng is that an anti particle is a particle having the opposite
charge it has in the matter stage,e.g., a positive electron vs a
negative one.

Beta decay:
n(+ -) --> p(+) + e(-) + ~(0) where ~ is a neutrino

The charge neutral of the neutron is because it consists of both a
and electron, so the charges neutralize each other.

The binding energy of the neutron becomes the neutrino when released.

We have spin parity: 1/2 before the reaction and 3/2 afterward (as the
neutrino has a half spin).

We also have charge parity as the neutrino has no charge.

Note, the mass of the binding energy is the difference in mass between
the neutron and the combined mass of the electron and proton.
This mass is 1.3891 x 10^-27 gr -- and this times c^2 is 1.24866 x
10^-6 erg
or .78 MeV -- the energy known to accompany this reaction.

Note, the mass remaining after the release of the proton is enough
mass to form *two* electrons. The reason that does
not happen is because it would violate charge parity.
So after the electron is formed, the remaining mass, 1.38909 x 10^-27
has nowhere to go charge paritywise and so goes flying off into space.

Question: If the neutrino is the left over after the proton and
electron are
released, it must have a negative spin also. Why, then, is the neutrino
neutral and not negative?

Answer: We can assume the neutrino is not a bound particle but composed

of scattered sub-particles, traveling in the same direction but
enough so as not to register a charge -- though the spin is there.

To enhance this view, we note there is no binding energy within the

As an addendum to this scenario, there have been experiments that
show -- approaching a neutron's exterior there is first detected a
charge, and then as the probe goes further, the negative charge changes

to positive.

Question: If that is so, then we have a proton surrounded by an
Why, then, do we not have an hydrogen atom?

Answer: because of the binding force that is the neutrino when
This binding force keeps the electron in close proximity to the proton
as against being in what we call orbit.

Note. We see here why a *free* neutron decays when in the free state.
When associated with a proton there is an interaction that supplies
When that is missing, the binding force alone is insufficient to hold
the neutron
together so it breaks up (decays).

Also, we see why the heavier elements are unstable. They have an excess

of neutrons and there are not enough protons to maintain the stable
neutron/proton interaction, so radioactive decay sets in.
As an aside, can anyone tell me why the charge on the electron and the
proton are equal (though opposite) despite their huge disparity in